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April 7, 1945


JAMA. 1945;127(14):922. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860140040009

In 1911 Carrel1 employed embryonic tissue extract as the basic element in his tissue cultures. Saline extracts of proliferating tissues added to a culture medium, he found, increased the rate growth of cell colonies in vitro. Carrel believed that this growth promoting property was possessed by the embryonic tissue alone. Maximov, von Moelendorf and others demonstrated that extracts of adult tissue, which they used in their tissue culture experiments, likewise exhibited the growth stimulating property. However, the tissues with which they worked were of the growing type, either neoplastic or bone marrow. Carrel demonstrated in 1913 that extracts of adult tissues, such as the spleen, liver, connective tissue, kidney, heart, blood cells, thyroid and muscle, stimulated the growth of connective tissue cells in vitro.

Doljanski, Hoffman and Tenenbaum2 demonstrated that extract of heart muscle of a hen exerted a pronounced growth stimulating effect on a culture of fibroblasts.