Abel, Rowntree and Turner1 devised in 1912 a method by which the blood of a living animal may be submitted to dialysis outside the body and again returned to the circulation without exposure to air, infection by micro-organisms or any alteration which would be prejudicial to life. The apparatus constituted a sort of artificial kidney, and the process was called by the authors "vivi-diffusion." An extract of hirudin prepared from the heads of leeches was used to keep the blood from coagulating. Excretion of salicylic acid by the apparatus showed that 19.1 per cent of the drug injected into the femoral vein of a dog was excreted in seven hours. The principle of the method consists in connecting an artery of the animal by a cannula to an apparatus made made of celloidin or other dialyzing membrane in the form of tubes immersed in a saline solution or serum,
ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY. JAMA. 1945;128(4):288–289. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860210044012
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