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June 9, 1945

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA AND THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF TUMORS OF THE STOMACH

JAMA. 1945;128(6):426-432. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860230030008
Abstract

Efforts at the recognition of carcinoma of the stomach at an early stage, when surgery would have some likelihood of success, have been pursued for many years with indifferent success. Despite the expansion of roentgen diagnosis, the more general use of gastroscopy, the refinement of the methods of examination of the gastric contents and stool, the record is a black one. The overall salvage of but 2 per cent of the patients afflicted with this disease or even the survival of 6 per cent, which is the maximum reported, gives a picture of the difficulties involved. Obviously, not all of the poor results are the consequence of late diagnosis, since many cases would not be cured regardless of the time when the diagnosis was established, but a great improvement might be achieved if the diagnosis was accomplished at an earlier stage.

The major factors in the late recognition of carcinoma

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