The most adequate present guide to the diagnosis of rupture of the short rotator cuff of the shoulder is outlined and described in detail by the late Dr. E. A. Codman in his classic text "The Shoulder."1 In considering the diagnostic aspects of rupture he frankly admitted that he never had had the opportunity to study a fresh case. He then went on to postulate eighteen conditions which he thought ought to be fulfilled before a positive diagnosis of early rupture should be made. His clinical syndrome was a rather exacting one which, in spite of its hypothetical nature, came surprisingly close to the mark. However, since the publication of his book a considerable number of proved ruptures, both early and late, have been studied by the Fracture Service of the Presbyterian Hospital in New York and certain modifications of and additions to this syndrome seem indicated.
McLAUGHLIN HL. LESIONS OF THE MUSCULOTENDINOUS CUFF OF THE SHOULDER: 2. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF RUPTURE. JAMA. 1945;128(8):563–568. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860250009003
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