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Original Investigation
August 13, 2019

Association of Midlife to Late-Life Blood Pressure Patterns With Incident Dementia

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 3School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
  • 4Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 5Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 6Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson
  • 7Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
  • 8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC
JAMA. 2019;322(6):535-545. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.10575
Key Points

Question  Are specific midlife to late-life longitudinal blood pressure patterns associated with increased risk of dementia among older adults?

Finding  In this prospective cohort study that included 4761 participants with 24-year follow-up and blood pressure measurements at midlife and at late life, those with midlife and late-life hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.49) and those with midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension (hazard ratio, 1.62) had higher risk for incident dementia compared with those who remained normotensive.

Meaning  Patterns of blood pressure in midlife and late life may be associated with differing risks for incident dementia.

Abstract

Importance  The association between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognition may depend on the presence and chronicity of past hypertension. Late-life declines in blood pressure following prolonged hypertension may be associated with poor cognitive outcomes.

Objective  To examine the association of midlife to late-life BP patterns with subsequent dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline.

Design, Setting, and Participants  The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities prospective population-based cohort study enrolled 4761 participants during midlife (visit 1, 1987-1989) and followed-up over 6 visits through 2016-2017 (visit 6). BP was examined over 24 years at 5 in-person visits between visits 1 and 5 (2011-2013). During visits 5 and 6, participants underwent detailed neurocognitive evaluation. The setting was 4 US communities: Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2017.

Exposures  Five groups based on longitudinal patterns of normotension, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg), and hypotension (<90/60 mm Hg) at visits 1 to 5.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Primary outcome was dementia onset after visit 5, based on Ascertain Dementia-8 informant questionnaires, Six-Item Screener telephone assessments, hospital discharge and death certificate codes, and the visit 6 neurocognitive evaluation. Secondary outcome was mild cognitive impairment at visit 6, based on the neurocognitive evaluation.

Results  Among 4761 participants (2821 [59%] women; 979 [21%] black race; visit 5 mean [SD] age, 75 [5] years; visit 1 mean age range, 44-66 years; visit 5 mean age range, 66-90 years), there were 516 (11%) incident dementia cases between visits 5 and 6. The dementia incidence rate for participants with normotension in midlife (n = 833) and late life was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.00-1.72 per 100 person-years); for midlife normotension and late-life hypertension (n = 1559), 1.99 (95% CI, 1.69-2.32 per 100 person-years); for midlife and late-life hypertension (n = 1030), 2.83 (95% CI, 2.40-3.35 per 100 person-years); for midlife normotension and late-life hypotension (n = 927), 2.07 (95% CI, 1.68-2.54 per 100 person-years); and for midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension (n = 389), 4.26 (95% CI, 3.40-5.32 per 100 person-years). Participants in the midlife and late-life hypertension group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.06-2.08]) and in the midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension group (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.11-2.37]) had significantly increased risk of subsequent dementia compared with those who remained normotensive. Irrespective of late-life BP, sustained hypertension in midlife was associated with dementia risk (HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.17-1.71]). Compared with those who were normotensive in midlife and late life, only participants with midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension had higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (37 affected individuals (odds ratio, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.01-2.69]). There was no significant association of BP patterns with late-life cognitive change.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this community-based cohort with long-term follow-up, sustained hypertension in midlife to late life and a pattern of midlife hypertension and late-life hypotension, compared with midlife and late-life normal BP, were associated with increased risk for subsequent dementia.

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