There are today two widely accepted methods of determining tubal patency, uterotubal insufflation and uterosalpingography. Rubin1 first performed uterotubal insufflation in 1919, using oxygen gas. Salpingography began a few years earlier, when Cary2 and Rubin3 in this country carried on independent studies in an attempt to visualize the tubes radiographically. Rindfleisch4 had previously attempted visualization of the uterine cavity in 1910. Since their inception almost a quarter century ago both tests have been discussed in the literature and there is no need to repeat their historical development here. Their widespread use and almost universal acceptance offer ample testimony to the fact that both have emerged from the chrysalis stage. Both have come to occupy an important place in the study of female sterility. Since equipment and steps in technic have also been thoroughly described, there is likewise little reason for their recapitulation here. On the other
MILLER NF. AN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION OF TUBAL PATENCY TESTS. JAMA. 1945;129(4):243–246. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860380001001
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