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March 20, 1937


Author Affiliations


From the Fourth Medical Division of Bellevue Hospital, Dr. Charles Nammack, director, and the Simon Baruch Foundation for Research.

JAMA. 1937;108(12):937-947. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780120007002

Carl Friedländer1 in 1882 described an organism which he found at necropsy in several cases of croupous pneumonia. He expressed the view that it was the chief etiologic agent of lobar pneumonia, thus precipitating a controversy which was not settled for many years. It is now generally agreed that Friedländer's observations were correct but that his deductions were too sweeping and based on insufficient data. For, soon after this, Talamon,2 Fraenkel3 and Sternberg4 showed conclusively that the common cause of lobar pneumonia was Diplococcus lanceolatus or pneumococcus. It was their view that the organism described by Friedländer was not a true cause of pneumonia at all but merely a secondary invader. This swing of opinion regarding the pathogenicity of Friedländer's bacillus appears to have been as extreme and erroneous as Friedländer's original conclusions. Weichselbaum5 approximated more closely to the truth as the result of a