[Skip to Navigation]
Viewpoint
February 24, 2020

The Evolution of Schools of Thought in Medicine: Healthy Tensions

Author Affiliations
  • 1Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
JAMA. 2020;323(11):1035-1036. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.0748

By many measures, it is an unsettled and unsettling time. The medical profession, too, is navigating rapid social changes along with major shifts in the scientific and technological foundations of practice. Of note, medicine as a broad term now often appears with a growing list of qualifiers (eg, evidence-based, molecular, personalized, precision). A brief review of the past century of schools of thought in and about medicine may be informative for 2 reasons: (1) to provide context for an apparent rebirth of medical sectarianism and (2) to enable reflection on some themes that seem unifying and evergreen.

Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words
    ×