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November 3, 1945


JAMA. 1945;129(10):662-664. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860440010003

The occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux has been recognized for many years. Importance has been attached to its significance as an etiologic factor in upper urinary tract infection and renal damage secondary to back pressure. Extensive studies were made by Graves and Davidoff1 in this connection, using rabbits and dogs. Their principal clinical interest was in connection with its relation to upper urinary tract infections. It was not until 1934 that the role of vesicoureteral reflux in the production of renal colic was forcefully brought to attention by Lewis and Carroll,2 who presented 30 cases of symptomatic vesicoureteral reflux. All cases described by them were secondary to vesical neck or urethral obstruction, and the symptomatology described was characterized by typical renal colic, occurring usually in the presence of a distended bladder, when the patient attempted to void. Individual cases were presented by several other authors in connection with their