Evidence obtained from clinical practice settings that compares alternative treatments is an important source of information about populations and end points for which randomized clinical trials are unavailable or infeasible.1 Unlike clinical trials, which strive to ensure patient characteristics are comparable across treatment groups through randomization, observational studies must attempt to adjust for differences (ie, confounding). This is frequently addressed with a propensity score (PS) that summarizes differences in patient characteristics between treatment groups. The PS is the probability that each individual will be assigned to receive the treatment of interest given their measured covariates.2 Matching or weighting on the PS is used to adjust comparisons between the 2 groups being compared.2,3
Thomas LE, Li F, Pencina MJ. Overlap Weighting: A Propensity Score Method That Mimics Attributes of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020;323(23):2417–2418. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7819
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