Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults and affects approximately 3 per 100 000 persons in the US annually.1 The standard of care is surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This combination has been used since 1978 and was updated to include temozolomide in 2005, which modestly increased median overall survival from 12.1 to 14.6 months2 and increased 5-year survival from 2% to 10%.3 Most patients with glioblastoma experience disease progression, and the average survival is less than 9 months after relapse.
Miller AM, DeAngelis LM. Reevaluation of the Frequent Use of PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitors for Treatment of Glioblastoma. JAMA. 2020;323(24):2482–2484. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5934
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