Overtreatment of patients with early-stage prostate cancer is a widely recognized clinical problem.1,2 Most patients with low-risk prostate cancer (defined as prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level ≤10 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score 6, and clinical stage T1c or T2a by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines) do not benefit from immediate aggressive treatment in terms of lengthening survival.3 Patients may be harmed by surgical or radiation treatments that lead to negative short-term and long-term effects on quality of life.4 Overtreatment of early-stage prostate cancer is associated with an estimated more than $300 million in avoidable annual Medicare spending.5
Shen X, Pettaway CA, Chen RC. Active Surveillance for Black Men With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer. JAMA. 2020;324(17):1733–1734. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16315
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