In all cases of delayed labor a shortened or short cord must be suspected. In 1922 I1 reported the analysis of 35,712 cases, which showed a shortened or short cord once in every 5.5 births. From an analysis of the last 750 consecutive cases of my own, on which the following conclusions are based, there is a shortened or short cord (a cord complication) once in every 3.5 births. The usually accepted symptoms of cord complication are: an immediate recedence of the presenting part at the end of the uterine contraction; a recedence accompanied by the passing of urine;2 umbilical souffle;3 a gradual cessation of labor pains;4 pain in the back; a desire on the part of the patient to assume the sitting posture, in order to exert more pressure in expulsion; localized pain at the placental site, due to traction on the placenta and partial
GARDINER JP. DELAYED LABOR CAUSED BY A SHORTENED OR SHORT UMBILICAL CORD. JAMA. 1932;98(8):598–602. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730340006002
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