In former years the medical profession rested serene in its reliance on the integrity and constancy of the normal ureteral valve for resisting and preventing the regurgitation of fluid from bladder to ureter. Once it had entered the bladder there was no going backward. even under all the pressures or provocations that could be brought to bear to that end. Experiments on animals served to confirm this belief.
In 1898, Young1 was unable to effect regurgitation by various degrees of pressure on the filled bladders of animals, and he affirmed the correctness of the established belief. The researches of Sampson and of Stoeckel pointed in the same direction.
But clinical observations of Kretschmer, Kelly and others, and the numerous experiments of Graves and Davidoff, Bumpus, Zernblinoff, Guyon and Albarran, Icobelli, Lewin and Goldschmidt, Marcus, von Lichtenberg, Lampe, Warschauer, Alksne and Barbey changed the views of the profession. Graves and
LEWIS B. REGURGITATION RENAL COLIC: A CLINICAL ENTITY. JAMA. 1932;98(8):609–613. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730340017004
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