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Original Investigation
May 18, 2021

Effect of Treating Hyperphosphatemia With Lanthanum Carbonate vs Calcium Carbonate on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis: The LANDMARK Randomized Clinical Trial

Author Affiliations
  • 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Tsuzuki, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 3Fukuoka Renal Clinic, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 4The Translational Research Center for Medical Innovation, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation at Kobe, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
  • 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan
JAMA. 2021;325(19):1946-1954. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.4807
Visual Abstract. Lanthanum Carbonate vs Calcium Carbonate on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing hemodialysis
Lanthanum Carbonate vs Calcium Carbonate on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing hemodialysis
Key Points

Question  Does lanthanum carbonate–based treatment without calcium-based phosphate binders reduce cardiovascular events compared with calcium carbonate–based treatment in patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing hemodialysis?

Findings  In this open-label randomized clinical trial that included 2135 patients undergoing hemodialysis with at least 1 risk factor for vascular calcification, there was no significant difference in composite cardiovascular events between lanthanum carbonate–based treatment with and without calcium-based phosphate binders after a median follow-up of 3.16 years (4.80 vs 4.30 per 100 person-years).

Meaning  Lanthanum carbonate–based treatment without calcium-based phosphate binders did not significantly reduce the composite outcome of cardiovascular events in patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing hemodialysis.

Abstract

Importance  Among patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis, it is unclear whether non–calcium-based phosphate binders are more effective than calcium-based binders for reducing cardiovascular events.

Objective  To determine whether lanthanum carbonate reduces cardiovascular events compared with calcium carbonate in patients with hyperphosphatemia at risk of vascular calcification undergoing hemodialysis.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Open-label, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded end point adjudication performed in 2374 patients with chronic kidney disease from 273 hemodialysis facilities in Japan. Eligible patients had hyperphosphatemia and 1 or more risk factors for vascular calcification (ie, ≥65 years, postmenopausal, diabetes). Enrollment occurred from November 2011 to July 2014; follow-up ended June 2018.

Interventions  Patients were randomized to receive either lanthanum carbonate (n = 1154) or calcium carbonate (n = 1155) and titrated to achieve serum phosphate levels of between 3.5 mg/dL and 6.0 mg/dL.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was a composite cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, unstable angina, transient ischemic attack, or hospitalization for heart failure or ventricular arrhythmia). Secondary outcomes included overall survival, secondary hyperparathyroidism-free survival, hip fracture–free survival, and adverse events.

Results  Among 2309 randomized patients (median age, 69 years; 40.5% women), 1851 (80.2%) completed the trial. After a median follow-up of 3.16 years, cardiovascular events occurred in 147 of 1063 patients in the lanthanum calcium group and 134 of 1072 patients in the calcium carbonate group (incidence rate, 4.80 vs 4.30 per 100 person-years; difference 0.50 per 100 person-years [95% CI, −0.57 to 1.56]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95%, CI, 0.88 to 1.41], P = .37). There were no significant differences in all-cause death (difference, 0.43 per 100 person-years [95% CI, −0.63 to 1.49]; HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.88 to 1.37]; P = .42) or hip fracture (difference, 0.10 per 100 person-years [95% CI, −0.26 to 0.47]; HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.62 to 2.35]; P = .58). The lanthanum carbonate group had an increased risk of cardiovascular death (difference, 0.61 per 100 person-years [95% CI, 0.02 to 1.21]; HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.01 to 2.27]; P = .045) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (difference, 1.34 [95% CI, 0.49 to 2.19]; HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.19 to 2.20]; P = .002). Adverse events occurred in 282 (25.7%) in the lanthanum carbonate group and 259 (23.4%) in the calcium carbonate groups.

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients undergoing hemodialysis with hyperphosphatemia and at least 1 vascular calcification risk factor, treatment of hyperphosphatemia with lanthanum carbonate compared with calcium carbonate did not result in a significant difference in composite cardiovascular events. However, the event rate was low, and the findings may not apply to patients at higher risk.

Trial Registration  ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01578200; UMIN Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: UMIN000006815

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