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August 7, 1937

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE IMMUNITY AND PORTAL OF ENTRY IN POLIOMYELITIS

JAMA. 1937;109(6):402-406. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780320004002
Abstract

Attempts have been made to render Macacus rhesus monkeys immune to poliomyelitis by injecting the living virus,1 killed virus,2 virus attenuated by heat,3 virus attenuated by drying4 or virus attenuted by various chemicals (solution of formaldehyde,5 sodium ricinoleate,6 aluminum hydroxide,7 phenol4), by injecting weak strains of living virus4 or by injecting higher dilutions of more virulent strains.4 These antigens have been introduced percutaneously,4 intracutaneously,8 intratesticularly,9 intrasplenically,10 intracerebrally,11 by way of the gastro-intestinal route12 and by spraying the nose.13 Active immunization has also been tried by injecting virus in combination with immune serums obtained from monkeys,14 sheep,15 horses16 and human beings17 or by injecting neutralizing serums first and then virulent strains of the virus.18

The evidence on active immunization is confusing. Animals which have been immunized are presumed to have

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