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Original Investigation
July 13, 2021

Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection vs Sham Injection on Tendon Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Author Affiliations
  • 1Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
  • 2University Hospitals of Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, United Kingdom
  • 3Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • 4Oxford Trauma and Emergency Care, Nuffield Department of Rheumatology, Musculoskeletal and Orthopaedic Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
JAMA. 2021;326(2):137-144. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.6986
Key Points

Question  In adults with painful midportion Achilles tendinopathy lasting longer than 3 months, does a single injection of platelet-rich plasma result in better function when compared with a sham injection 6 months after treatment?

Findings  This randomized clinical trial included 240 participants with pain at the midportion of the Achilles tendon. Treatment with a single injection of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma vs a subcutaneous dry needle resulted in a mean Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles score at 6 months of 54.4 vs 53.4 (range, 0 [worst symptoms] to 100 [no symptoms]); this difference was not statistically significant.

Meaning  A single injection of platelet-rich plasma compared with a sham injection did not significantly reduce Achilles tendon dysfunction.

Abstract

Importance  Platelet-rich plasma injections are used as a treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, but evidence for this treatment is limited.

Objective  In adults with midportion Achilles tendinopathy, to assess the effects of a single platelet-rich plasma injection, compared with sham injection, on the outcome of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score (a single composite measure of Achilles tendinopathy severity).

Design, Setting, and Participants  A participant-blinded, multicenter randomized clinical trial that included 240 people from 24 sites assigned to either a platelet-rich plasma injection or a sham injection between April 2016 and February 2020. Final follow-up was July 2020. Participants were older than 18 years with midportion Achilles tendon pain for more than 3 months as confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or both.

Interventions  A single intratendinous platelet-rich plasma injection (n = 121) or a single sham injection (insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle not entering the tendon) (n = 119).

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was the VISA-A score, measured 6 months after treatment allocation. The VISA-A score contains 8 questions that cover 3 domains of pain, function, and activity, analyzed as a composite score (range, 0 [worst symptoms] to 100 [no symptoms]; minimal clinically important difference in score, 12 points). The primary analysis was adjusted for laterality, age, sex, and baseline VISA-A score.

Results  Among 240 patients assigned to a platelet-rich plasma or sham injection (mean age, 52 years; 138 [58%] women), 221 (92%) completed the trial. At 6-month follow-up, mean VISA-A score values in the plasma-rich plasma group vs the sham injection group were 54.4 vs 53.4 (adjusted mean difference, −2.7 [95% CI, −8.8 to 3.3]). The most common adverse events compared between patients in the platelet-rich plasma group vs the sham group were injection site discomfort (97 vs 73 patients), swelling (56 vs 52 patients) and bruising (48 vs 49 patients).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, treatment with a single injection of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma, compared with insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle, did not reduce Achilles tendon dysfunction at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of this treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy.

Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN13254422

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