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March 19, 1932

Evolution of Facial Musculature and Facial Expression.

JAMA. 1932;98(12):1024. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730380092044

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Facial expression, momentary or permanent, plays a prominent part in human intercourse. It indicates character and gives beauty and interest to the human countenance. It also gives it individuality; people's faces differ. Each race has its characteristic "face," as have horses and dogs; and many animals are capable of much facial expression. Huber has studied the anatomic mechanism that produces this expression. He has been especially interested in its evolution, its development during childhood, and racial differences in it. It evolves in the mammals from two superficial neck muscles, both visceral in origin: the platysma (originally nuchal in position) and the sphincter colli profundus. From the first are developed the muscles behind the ear in the lower lip and the platysma of the neck; from the second are developed some intrinsic muscles of the ear, the orbicularis oculi and associated muscles, the orbicularis oris and cheek muscles and the vibrissae

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