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The eighteenth century saw the rise of Russia and Prussia and the gathering of forces that led to the French Revolution. England experienced tremendous colonial expansion. There were wars in Europe, Asia, America and on the seas, corrupt morals, the South Sea bubble, the rise of Wesleyanism, and finally an aroused moral sense. To one group of historians, the spirit of the century was humanitarian idealism. They see interest in child welfare, the birth of pediatrics, and a great increase in the number of hospitals. Other historians see the rise of the arts and sciences; histology, pathology and physiology assumed the rôle of new sciences; disease entities were more clearly defined under keen clinical observation. Some historians are impressed only by the intellectual muddling of the eighteenth century's scientific men, and their great output of ridiculous theories. The surgical center of gravity shifted from France to England; Hunter, Pott and
Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century. JAMA. 1932;98(13):1108–1110. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730390062030
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