In several previous communications, one of us1 in collaboration with Heaney and Ockuly studied, by means of retrograde and intravenous pyelograms, the changes that occurred in the upper urinary tract during pregnancy and the puerperium. It was demonstrated in these studies that, during pregnancy and the puerperium, dilatation of the ureters and kidney pelves occurred in 100 per cent of our cases, that there was a return to normal in 59.3 per cent after two weeks and in 34.3 per cent after six weeks, and that the remaining 6.2 per cent were normal after twelve weeks. The striking fact about the dilatation of the ureter during pregnancy is that, with rare exceptions, it is above the brim of the pelvis. Another point emphasized by these studies was that lateral displacement, when found early in pregnancy, tends to increase as the pregnancy advances. Many contributions have since verified these observations.
KRETSCHMER HL, KANTER AE. EFFECT OF CERTAIN GYNECOLOGIC LESIONS ON THE UPPER URINARY TRACT: A PYELOGRAPHIC STUDY. JAMA. 1937;109(14):1097–1101. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780400013004
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