Regular insulin has been used in the treatment of diabetes for about a decade and a half. The great improvement that it brought about in the treatment of diabetes was apparent at once. Its limitations as a substitute for the normal, functioning islands of Langerhans were gradually becoming more apparent during the last half of this time. These limitations were rarely stressed, and probably rightly so, in medical literature until the recent introduction of protamine insulin. A number of reports on the therapeutic results obtained with protamine insulin and with protamine zinc insulin have appeared in the literature. These reports, by necessity, have been made on the basis of a limited number of patients treated over a limited period. The tenor of the reports has, in general, been favorable to the use of protamine insulin and protamine zinc insulin. At present there are insufficient data to warrant detailed statistical analyses
KEPLER EJ. CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH PROTAMINE ZINC INSULIN. JAMA. 1938;110(2):92–96. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790020006003
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