Since Halsted1 and Willy Meyer2 described the radical operation for the cure of cancer in 1894, surgeons throughout the world have studied the problem with renewed interest. Other surgeons increased the scope of the procedure so as to include more axillary skin and supraclavicular glands. Some surgeons, who were inclined to evaluate too highly the cosmetic result or who did not appreciate fully the pathology of cancer of the breast, removed too little skin and left in place one or both pectoral muscles. Halsted3 eventually abandoned the supraclavicular neck dissection with division of the clavicle as well as the incision out onto the shoulder. Handley4 introduced the wide subcutaneous dissection with emphasis on the deep subcutaneous spread of the disease, in accordance with his theory of lymphatic permeation. As a result, most experienced surgeons have finally settled down to a radical operation that requires the removal
WHITE WC. IRRADIATION AS AN AID TO SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CANCER OF THE BREAST. JAMA. 1938;110(4):261–265. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.02790040015004
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