Intestinal heterophyid infestation has been reported in man from various parts of the world, including China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Egypt and the Balkan states, in areas where parasitized fish is eaten raw or uncooked. Recently a case of heterophyidiasis has been discovered in man in Hawaii, and the source of infestation is believed to have been infested raw fish, possibly mullets, which the patient had eaten. This finding marks a new geographic endemic area for this group of parasites: this new distribution would have been expected because of the large number of Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos who have migrated to Hawaii and because of the presence of melanid snails and mullet, which have been reported in other localities as serving as primary and secondary intermediate hosts respectively of these parasites. It is not surprising also to find human infestation in Hawaii, since raw fish is customarily eaten by certain
Alicata JE, Schattenburg OL, Honolulu TH. A CASE OF INTESTINAL HETEROPHYIDIASIS OF MAN IN HAWAII. JAMA. 1938;110(14):1100–1101. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.62790140003008a
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