Because of the extreme difficulty in getting the Kirschner wire in proper position to feed the Smith-Petersen nail on it, in nailing fractures of the neck of the femur and in determining the length of the femoral neck, our interest was stimulated to find a better method than that used today. It has been, and still is, easy to get the position of the fragments and the wire in good alinement in the one plane, anterior posterior, hut the difficulty has been in getting these alinements in the second plane, lateral, as well as the first. With the direction finder we feel that these difficulties are entirely eliminated, and besides being able to get perfect position regarding fragments, wire and nail, and the proper length of nail, it can be done through a small incision, which also is of advantage in elderly patients by making it possible for the patients
Engel GC, May H. TWO-PLANE DIRECTION AND RANGE FINDER FOR NAILING FRACTURES OF THE NECK OF THE FEMUR. JAMA. 1938;110(22):1828–1829. doi:10.1001/jama.1938.62790220003010a
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