Exophthalmos as a sign of hyperplastic disease of the thyroid gland has been attributed to overactivity of certain smooth muscles in the orbit, innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and to an increase of orbital fat. However, more attention has been given to the description of ocular signs, to which the names of some thirty or more persons are attached, than to a detailed study of exophthalmos with proof of the mechanism by which it is produced. It is rather astounding to find so little in the literature that would indicate that the orbital contents have been studied in persons dying from disorders of the thyroid gland. In view of the fact that exophthalmos is an obvious physical sign, readily apparent both to the physician and to the layman, it is surprising that nothing has been accomplished in the determination of the pathologic changes that produce it.
The result of
NAFFZIGER HC, JONES OW. THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PROGRESSIVE EXOPHTHALMOS FOLLOWING THYROIDECTOMY. JAMA. 1932;99(8):638–642. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02740600030008
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