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With the rapid advance of reconstruction surgery during the past decade in technic, in availability to the public and in the types of disfigurement that have been treated, new interest has developed in this field. The experience of surgeons has been, however, that the benefit derived is not always in keeping with the results. They have found patients who have benefited both in body and in mind but also patients who, although they have experienced very creditable surgical results, have remained unsatisfied and have shown that they are sick and maladjusted persons.
A study was undertaken of the personality of patients coming to the Graduate Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania for plastic repair of facial disfigurement under the direction of Dr. Robert H. Ivy and his associates. There has been a total of 312 such patients. In this study, patients with disfigurements of recent traumatic origin were not included,
BAKER WY, SMITH LH. FACIAL DISFIGUREMENT AND PERSONALITY. JAMA. 1939;112(4):301–304. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1939.02800040019006
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