Eczema vaccinatum is a form of generalized vaccinia found in persons, usually infants and children under 5 years of age, with a history of atopic eczema. It is an acute febrile disease with a mortality rate of 33 per cent, according to McKhann and Ross.1
A review of previously reported cases may be found in reports by Collett and Kennedy,2 Ellis3 and Tedder.4 Ellis3 expressed his belief that the vaccinia virus in eczema vaccinatum is circulated by the blood stream and that it tends to localize in traumatized areas of epidermis. He discounted the theory of spread of the virus by autoinoculation. The vesicular lesions of eczema vaccinatum have been reported to occur in almost all areas of the body, including such unusual sites as the eyelids, corneas, tongue, nasal septum and genitalia.
The vesicles appear suddenly and in several large crops during a period
PERRY FG, MARTINEAU PC. ECZEMA VACCINATUM: Rapid Recovery Following Treatment with Aureomycin. JAMA. 1949;141(10):657–658. doi:10.1001/jama.1949.62910100001006
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