Surgical procedures involving opening of the thoracic space have multiplied in incidence and variety many times in the past decade and even in the past five years. With the advent of new techniques and drugs, surgery involving the lungs has become commonplace as compared with 1942. Esophageal surgery, ranging from that for carcinoma in the aged to repair of tracheoesophageal fistula in the newborn, is capably done over the entire country. Certain neurosurgical procedures may involve entry into the pleural space, and intrathoracic cardiac or vascular surgery has been developed in recent years to a spectacular degree. Most sizable communities are beginning to regard operations on the mitral valve or coarctation of the aorta as operations with definite indications and predictably bright prognoses. Such being the case, it seems desirable that referring physicians should have some conception of the problems, accidents, and complications encountered in the operating room in the
Phelps ML, McAfee JC. PROBLEMS OF ANESTHESIA FOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES WITHIN THE CHEST. JAMA. 1953;152(11):1004–1006. doi:10.1001/jama.1953.03690110018006
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