In 1935 Pappenheimer and his associates1 of Columbia University studied in detail the gastric ulcers commonly found in rats placed on artificial diets. These gastric lesions vary from elevated round or oval disks with a pin point central erosion to deep hemorrhage craters 7 mm. or more in diameter. With control rats on adequate stock diets, such ulcers are never found in more than 1 per cent of the cases. Pappenheimer found that among 112 rats on various deficiency diets 68 developed ulcers, an incidence of approximately 61 per cent. The highest incidence was among young rats placed on a diet designed for the experimental production of rickets, 86 per cent of them developing severe gastric erosions by the end of thirty-five days.
Attempts to determine the essential deficiency factor responsible for these lesions proved inconclusive. The addition of 2 per cent cod liver oil to the ricketsproducing diet prevented
VITAMIN REQUIREMENTS OF ALCOHOLIC ADDICTS. JAMA. 1946;131(15):1212. doi:10.1001/jama.1946.02870320030011
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