Ophthalmoscopic examination may reveal papilledema and atrophy in intracranial lesions. It may show vascular and retinal changes indicative of cerebral or general systemic disturbances and it may not show anything, even with involvement of the intracranial portion of the visual system, the so-called cases of cerebral blindness. Another aid to the diagnosis of intracranial lesions, possibly of greater importance, is a thorough study of the visual fields. Here again the examination may be negative, but it should be pursued routinely and with care. When defects in the visual fields are found they may frequently aid in determining the location and nature of a lesion and its activity and prognosis.
Further aid in diagnosis may be had by study of the reactions of the pupil and the state of the extraocular muscles and by observation of the function of the tissues innervated by the trigeminal and facial nerves as they concern
LYLE DJ. CHANGES IN THE VISUAL FIELDS CONFIRMED BY PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS. JAMA. 1947;133(8):517–522. doi:10.1001/jama.1947.02880080009003
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