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April 19, 1947


JAMA. 1947;133(16):1211-1215. doi:10.1001/jama.1947.62880160007008

Orthoptics deals with binocular vision. The orthoptic technician has to deal with the stumbling blocks to binocular vision which must be overcome in order to establish normal binocular vision. What are the obstacles to be overcome? Or, to put the same question in another way, what are the causes of orthoptic failure?

One can list the obstacles to normal binocular vision by determining to which of four main classes the patient belongs: 1. Is it possible for the patient to straighten his eyes or are there insuperable obstacles to binocular vision? 2. Can he learn to know what his eyes are doing? Can he recognize his errors in fusion? 3. Can he be comfortable fusing habitually? 4. Does he desire to use his eyes correctly? These will be amplified and explained, and then the three ways in which these problems can be attacked by the orthoptic technician will be enumerated