The extreme toxicity of organic phosphorus insecticides suggests that they can be harmful to beneficial forms of life, including pollinating insects, certain parasitic and predatory insects, fish and wild life. Their use on livestock and pets is not recommended. With the exception of direct application to domestic animals, little hazard exists with HETP and TEPP because of the lack of residual properties. Since parathion possesses this characteristic, it should not be used at blossom time, because of the danger to pollinating insects, or used in excessive quantities around fish ponds, along streams and in wildlife habitats. Evidence of the possibility of injury from parathion fumes to birds and other wildlife entering recently sprayed areas is inconclusive at the present time.
With the exception of certain varieties of chrysanthemums, plants tolerate recommended concentrations of HETP and TEPP. On the other hand, parathion has been found injurious to a number of fruits
LEHMAN AJ, HARTZELL A, WARD JC. EFFECTS ON BENEFICIAL FORMS OF LIFE, CROPS AND SOIL AND RESIDUE HAZARDS. JAMA. 1950;144(2):108. doi:10.1001/jama.1950.62920020005008d
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