This is a description of the clinical course of systemic lupus as observed in 105 patients studied at Johns Hopkins Hospital. In each instance the existence of lupus was established by autopsy examination, by the finding of L. E. cells, or through study of material obtained at operation. Figure 1 shows the age and sex incidence. It is seen that this disease may occur at any period of life. Our youngest patient was 3 years of age and the oldest 73. Most frequently it affects women between the ages of 20 and 40. This has brought to question the role of endocrine factors in its pathogenesis. As more has been learned about the natural history of this disease, however, it has been recognized more frequently in males, and its preponderance in females appears somewhat less striking. It has been reported that systemic lupus is an unusual disease in Negroes, perhaps
Tumulty PA. THE CLINICAL COURSE OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. JAMA. 1954;156(10):947–953. doi:10.1001/jama.1954.02950100023009
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