The diagnosis of lesions causing pain or limitation of motion in the shoulder is one of the difficult problems confronting the physiatrist. The symptoms and clinical signs are frequently so similar in many different pathological conditions that even the most careful study may fail to provide the correct diagnosis. Every painful shoulder will be the result either of a pathological change in the shoulder region itself or of a more distant lesion causing referred pain in the shoulder. Although this presentation is to emphasize restricted motion of the scapulohumeral joint, other joints of the shoulder girdle can also be implicated as causes of shoulder stiffness and pain.
Whenever the upper extremity is carried through a full range of motion at the shoulder level, movement occurs at the scapulohumeral joint, the acromioclavicular joint, and the sternoclavicular joint. The scapula itself moves in a rotatory fashion on the trunk. It articulates with
Knapp ME, Engel JP. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PAINFUL SHOULDER. JAMA. 1955;157(12):995–996. doi:10.1001/jama.1955.02950290015004
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