The subject abnormal presentation necessitates a discussion of several abnormalities. In the limited time for this paper I will review only the salient points of each.
First, one should remember that every pregnant woman is entitled to a careful complete physical examination and accurate pelvic measurements early in pregnancy regardless of whether she is a private or a clinic patient. A careful pelvic examination may reveal abnormalities of the bony pelvis or soft tissues which often predispose to faulty presentation when the pregnancy is at term.
Routine examination of the patient's abdomen and the use of Leopold's four maneuvers during the last month or six weeks of pregnancy will enable any physician who is a careful observer to diagnose the position of the fetus before the onset of labor in most cases. When an abnormality is suspected, a roentgen
WARE HH. ABNORMAL PRESENTATION. JAMA. 1948;137(5):448–450. doi:10.1001/jama.1948.02890390026005
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