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Article
April 9, 1955

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN MEN SEEKING SEX TRANSFORMATIONA PRELIMINARY REPORT

JAMA. 1955;157(15):1292-1298. doi:10.1001/jama.1955.02950320022007
Abstract

This is a report based on some preliminary observations of men who demand surgical procedures to remove the male genitals and leave a female-appearing perineum. These studies have been conducted in preparation for the design of a research project investigating both the physical and psychological aspects of the problem. The material reported here is limited to the psychological findings in these subjects. All of them were physically normal by usual clinical standards and showed no signs of true or pseudohermaphroditism as it is usually understood. Despite feminine mannerisms, none of them showed a feminine body configuration or appearance.

BASIC PROBLEMS  It might be asked why this group is worthy of study at all, inasmuch as it is, comparatively speaking, a small one and does not pose a major public health problem. After the publicity in recent years about such operations, there have been increasing numbers of these men banging on

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