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November 27, 1948


Author Affiliations

Portland, Maine

JAMA. 1948;138(13):952-955. doi:10.1001/jama.1948.02900130016006

This paper describes a refraction routine in which throughout the examination one method of testing is used to check or verify another. In this way most of the common blunders are detected. This practice is particularly valuable for students and for general practitioners who perform a limited amount of refraction. It also has merit for experienced examiners.

At the Board examinations even the well prepared candidates usually show familiarity with only one way of refracting. The method chosen varies, but they use some one technic exclusively. Many of them can describe the theory of other common methods, but have never tried them. Others who have tried them never developed any facility with them. They reverted to their original technic, not because it was best, but because it was familiar.

At first thought this may seem rather commendable than otherwise. We are somewhat conditioned to the idea that if a refractionist