The possibility that irradiation might be an etiological factor in carcinoma of the thyroid in children and adolescents was suggested by Duffy and Fitzgerald,1 who found that 10 of 28 patients, 18 years of age or younger, seen at the Memorial Hospital had been subjected to irradiation to the thymus gland some time between the 4th and 16th month of life. Simpson, Hempelmann, and Fuller2 studied the frequency of neoplasms in 1,400 of 1,722 children who had received x-ray therapy to the thymic area between 1926 and 1951 and found that the number of cases of thyroid cancer was markedly higher in the treated group than in either the untreated siblings or the general population. As short courses of low voltage x-rays have been widely used in children for benign conditions about the head, neck, and upper thorax other than thymic enlargement, a search of the literature was
Clark DE. ASSOCIATION OF IRRADIATION WITH CANCER OF THE THYROID IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. JAMA. 1955;159(10):1007–1009. doi:10.1001/jama.1955.02960270027007
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