• Injection of a local anesthetic such as tetracaine about the stellate ganglion aids the diagnosis and relieves the symptoms of many functional disturbances in the upper extremity, chest, head, and neck. An anterior, paratracheal approach to the ganglion, here described, has been used in more than 2,000 cases. It is more easily mastered by the physician than are the older anterolateral and posterior approaches.
The criteria for a satisfactory block are ptosis, enophthalmos, miosis, and localized vasodilation, increase in skin temperature, and anhidrosis. All blocks in this study were satisfactory, and no severe complications occurred.
Moore DC, Bridenbaugh LD. THE ANTERIOR APPROACH TO THE STELLATE GANGLIONUSE WITHOUT A SERIOUS COMPLICATION IN TWO THOUSAND BLOCKS. JAMA. 1956;160(3):158–162. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960380006003
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