• Nitrous oxide-oxygen-thiopental anesthesia can be supplemented by injections of alphaprodine, an analgesic that reduces the amount of thiopental needed. Alphaprodine in large doses has the disadvantage of causing marked respiratory depression, but this can be prevented by levallorphan. In this study 852 patients who received nitrous oxide, oxygen, thiopental, and alphaprodine with levallorphan were compared with 756 patients who, in a previous study, had received the same combination without levallorphan. The use of alphaprodine reduced the amount of thiopental needed. The addition of levallorphan made it possible to increase the alphaprodine to such a level that in 92 cases of extraperitoneal surgery satisfactory operating conditions were obtained without any thiopental at all. The amount of thiopental needed, in milligrams per minute, diminished as the duration of the anesthesia increased. The same was found to be true for alphaprodine.
Foldes FF, Lipschitz E, Weber GM, Swerdlow M, Pirk LA. LEVALLORPHAN (LORFAN) AND ALPHAPRODINE (NISENTIL) IN ANESTHESIASTUDY OF EFFECTS IN SUPPLEMENTATION OF NITROUS OXIDE-OXYGEN-THIOPENTAL (PENTOTHAL) SODIUM ANESTHESIA. JAMA. 1956;160(3):168–175. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960380016006
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