• A study of 357 patients with well-established diagnoses of renal calculus showed that in 9 instances of unilateral calculus there followed recurrence in the same kidney while in 12 instances recurrence was in the contralateral kidney. Bilateral recurrence was seen in eight cases after an initial unilateral calculus and in four instances after an initial bilateral calculus. Urine cultures were sterile in 43% of patients with bilateral and recurrent calculi, so that infection could not be proved to be the cause of the lithiasis. Needle biopsies of both kidneys in a small series of patients revealed alterations of the connective tissue matrix about the renal tubules. This finding, together with the foregoing facts about bilaterality and recurrence, suggest that renal lithiasis may be a systemic disorder belonging to the group of collagen diseases.
Baker R, Connelly JP. BILATERAL AND RECURRENT RENAL CALCULIEVIDENCE INDICATING RENAL COLLAGEN ABNORMALITY AND RESULTS OF SALICYLATE THERAPY. JAMA. 1956;160(13):1106–1110. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960480006002
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