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April 28, 1956


JAMA. 1956;160(17):1472. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960520034010

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The functions of speech are threefold. The first is to express emotions through tone, inflections, and words. Perhaps this is the most fundamental and important function of speech. The second is to adjust to other people. We see how tragic it is not to be able to talk with others when we observe deaf children who cannot speak. The third function, perhaps the least important, is to express ideas. Stuttering is a blocking of the person's ability to adjust to other people. It is a personality defect due to anxiety in meeting various social situations rather than a speech defect. Except in rare instances, most stutterers can talk when they are alone, they can talk to animals, and they can often talk to people they are friendly with. Stuttering, therefore, cannot be considered a speech defect, because it occurs only in situations where fear and anxiety are aroused.

Intensive studies

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