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April 28, 1956

Stuttering in Children and Adults: Thirty Years of Research at the University of Iowa

JAMA. 1956;160(17):1537. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02960520099024

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This monumental undertaking is divided into eight parts: General Orientation; The Onset of Stuttering; Nonfluency in the Speech of Early Childhood; Variations in Amount of Stuttering; Certain Aspects of the Personal Adjustments of Stutterers; Explorations of Certain Physical Approaches to Stuttering; For the Record; and Approaches to Stuttering Therapy. Most of the articles are elaborate scientific investigations of the ego psychology (conscious psychology) of the stutterer, but one or two of them attempt to explore the deeper mind of the stutterer. Dr. Johnson believes stuttering to be an anxiety state that the stutterer uses to avoid situations that cause him fear and anxiety. This apprehensive anxiety that characterizes the stutterer may be mild or may approach panic. The anxiety is aroused by sounds, words, listeners, and other situations in which the person has experienced stuttering in the past. Many factors decide just when and how this anxiety may arise, but

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