This study was undertaken to determine the frequency with which roentgenograms failed to show the presence of bladder stones. It is based on the analysis of 257 cases of proved bladder calculi and covers the period from 1939 to 1949.
There seems to be a prevailing opinion that the percentage of error in the roentgen diagnosis of bladder stone is relatively high. Lowsley and Kirwin1 reported that shadows were not cast by the calculi in 35, or 61 per cent, of 59 cases. Hinman2 stated that vesical calculi are frequently missed in the roentgenograms. Herman3 believes that the failure of roentgen rays to disclose certain vesical stones in so many instances is due to invisibility of certain concretions, especially uric acid stones, the presence of overlying masses of hypertrophied prostatic tissue and the absence of gas from the rectum, which would serve to intensify the shadow of
Squire FH, Kretschmer HL. LIMITATIONS OF ROENTGEN RAYS IN DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER STONE. JAMA. 1951;145(2):81–82. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.02920200021007
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