Gibbon,1 in defining cardiac surgery made the following statements: "Operations upon the human heart have been confined chiefly to the surface or to the walls of the heart. The field of intracardiac surgery on human patients is in its infancy." Because of the increasing employment of intracardiac surgery in human patients, for which our department has been responsible for anesthesia, and because of the increasingly beneficial results obtained by such surgical procedures, it appeared to us that intracardiac surgery held such definite prospects for certain incapacitated patients that its application would increase. Therefore, it was thought that a report on the current methods of anesthetic practices employed by us might be helpful to others who may be called on for this application of anesthesia. This discussion will be limited to anesthesia for commissurotomies in cases of mitral stenosis. Of all surgical procedures on the mitral valve this one has
Keown KK, Grove DD, Ruth HS. ANESTHESIA FOR COMMISSUROTOMY FOR MITRAL STENOSIS: PRELIMINARY REPORT. JAMA. 1951;146(5):446–450. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670050028006
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