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November 17, 1951

CLASSIFICATION OF UREMIA AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF CASES

Author Affiliations

Los Angeles

From the Departments of Urology, Internal Medicine, and Pathology, College of Medical Evangelists, School of Medicine.

JAMA. 1951;147(12):1106-1109. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.03670290014005
Abstract

"Uremia" is a term used to describe a clinical syndrome which is associated with bilateral renal insufficiency and nitrogen retention. Although the symptoms and findings may be multiple and variable, the clinical picture usually includes varying degrees of headache, vomiting, pericarditis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and, finally, coma and death in the late stages. The laboratory findings consist of an elevation in the nonprotein nitrogen, urea, creatinine, often potassium in the blood, and abnormal renal function tests. Acidosis, as shown by a low carbon dioxide plasma-combining power, develops in the later stages. The term "azotemia" is more commonly used to designate changes in laboratory findings without clinical symptoms. The classification given here and the most characteristic findings in the differential diagnosis are applicable to either azotemia or uremia.

In developing a classification of the causes of uremia it is necessary to recognize that (1) there are a few renal diseases which never

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