In 1947, Ehrlich and collaborators1 isolated Streptomyces venezuelae, N. sp., from a soil sample obtained near Caracas, Venezuela. Filtrates of S. venezuelae cultures were found to have marked antibiotic activity against several gram-negative bacteria, principally Shigella paradysenteriae (Sonne). This new antibiotic in crystalline form is a neutral compound, is stable in aqueous solution for over 24 hours at a pH 2 to 9, and in distilled water is unaffected by boiling for 5 hours. At 25 C its solubility in water is about 2.5 mg. per milliliter. It is very soluble in propylene glycol, butanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate. In vitro tests against gram-negative organisms demonstrated the new antibiotic to be 7 to 36 times as active as penicillin and approximately 2 to 16 times as active as streptomycin. Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is approximately one-tenth as active as streptomycin.2 The drug showed remarkable tuberculostatic action3
Trindade O, Nastari F. TREATMENT OF MENINGITIS BY INTRACISTERNAL INJECTION OF CHLORAMPHENICOL. JAMA. 1951;147(18):1757–1759. doi:10.1001/jama.1951.73670350001010
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