There is conclusive evidence that the virus of epidemic hepatitis is present in the stools of infected persons. Whether cross infection results from this source alone, from the urine, and/or from the nasopharyngeal secretions is still debatable. Epidemiological evidence has suggested to some workers that the virus is spread by nasopharyngeal secretions. However, such epidemiological studies have not been supported by studies in volunteers. No sound evidence has been obtained for the presence of the virus in nasopharyngeal secretions or in the urine of patients with epidemic hepatitis.
Earlier work by Findlay and Willcox1 in Africa suggested the presence of the virus in urine. It has since been suggested by the same workers that this may have resulted from contamination of the urine with infected blood, in cases of schistosomiasis.
Transmission of the epidemic hepatitis virus by the bites of insects and/or by passive transfer through the medium of
Farquhar JD, Stokes J, Schrack WD. EPIDEMIC OF VIRAL HEPATITIS APPARENTLY SPREAD BY DRINKING WATER AND BY CONTACT. JAMA. 1952;149(11):991–993. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1952.02930280013004
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