A variety of micro-organisms may be found in the normal male urethra, and, although many are potential pathogens, in the absence of urethritis they are probably saprophytic. These include Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptobacillus urethrae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Str. faecalis, diphtheroids, Micrococcus (Staphylococcus) pyogenes var. albus, M. pyogenes var. aureus, M. citreus, and other micrococci. If an indwelling catheter is retained urethritis and cystitis almost always result despite prophylaxis with chemotherapeutic agents. These are less severe, however, if a latex rubber catheter is used. Shackman and Messent1 aerobically cultured urethral swabbings and urine from the bladder of 62 patients (including controls) in order to determine whether the retention of an indwelling catheter would cause a change in the normal flora and whether there was any relation between the flora of the urethra and that of the bladder in patients retaining such a catheter. Recent instrumentation or catheterization did not affect
EFFECT OF AN INDWELLING CATHETER. JAMA. 1955;157(1):42. doi:10.1001/jama.1955.02950180044015
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