† Abnormalities and diseases of the female urethra include the caruncle, diverticula, cysts, carcinoma, urethritis, trigonitis, venereal infections, and the unusual conditions of polyps and congenital valves. Over a 20-year period of observations, it was found that prolapse of the posterior margin of the mucosa at the urethral meatus was extremely common after the menopause, although it may also occur in younger women and children. Of 108 pathological specimens of the female urethra, 71 were urethral caruncles. The common caruncle rarely is malignant and, unless symptomatic, often requires no treatment. Other treatment for pathological conditions of the female urethra depends not only on the lesions observed but, occasionally, on related syndromes such as anxieties and allergies.
Gray LA, Pingelton WB. PATHOLOGICAL LESIONS OF THE FEMALE URETHRA. JAMA. 1956;162(15):1361–1365. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.02970320009003
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